Dexedrine (dexetroamphetamine) is a psychostimulant drug that produces increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and decreased appetite.
Physical effects of dextroamphetamine can include hyperactivity, restlessness, dilated pupils, blood shot eyes, dry mouth, headache, tachycardia, hypertension, fever, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, aphasia, dizziness, twitching, insomnia, numbness, palpitations, arrhythmias, tremors, and convulsions.
In cases of high doses or long term abuse and dependence, physical effects may include coma, stroke, heart attack, and sudden death.
Psychological effects can include euphoria, anxiety, increased libido, alertness, concentration, energy, self-esteem, self-confidence, sociability, irritability, aggression, psychosomatic disorders, psychomotor agitation, hubris, excessive feelings of power and invincibility, repetitive and obsessive behaviors, and paranoia.
In cases of high doses or long term abuse and dependence, psychological effects can include a condition known as "amphetamine psychosis."
Withdrawal symptoms from dextroamphetamine primarily consist of mental fatigue, mental depression, and an increased appetite. Symptoms may last for days with occasional use, but may last for weeks or months with chronic use. The severity of symptoms is dependent on the length of time and the amount of dextroamphetamine taken.
Withdrawal symptoms may also include anxiety, agitation, excessive sleep, vivid or lucid dreams, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis.
Dextroamphetamine (along with amphetamine and methylphenidate) has become a popular recreational stimulant drug because of its euphoric effects and its common use as a so-called "study drug." It is one of the most widely used and one of the most addictive recreational drugs available.
Treatment for Dexedrine abuse and dependence often requires medically supervised detoxification followed by concentrated psychosocial treatment.
Even short term Dexedrine abuse lasting only a few weeks or months may require medical and psychosocial treatment. Severity of withdrawal symptoms are dependent on length and frequency of use, with the most severe cases requiring months of treatment. Continued social support is usually recommended as psychological dependence lasts well after physical dependence has been successfully treated.
Summit Malibu offers a holistic program based on our belief that we are treating the whole person and not just a collection of symptoms and problems.
Our program includes medically supervised detoxification for physical symptoms, psychotherapeutic counseling for mental and emotional distress, and optional practices such as Yoga, Meditation, and 12-Step Groups for the spirit.
If you are considering another treatment center, ask them if their program is truly holistic, or if they require their clients to adhere to limited programs such as an “addiction cure."
Summit Malibu is owned and operated by people committed to helping other people, not by a corporation focused on continually increasing profits.
The owners of Summit Malibu are long-standing members of the recovery community, and many are in recovery themselves.
If you are considering another treatment center, ask them if their business is owned by people involved in the day-to-day operation of the program, or by a distant, profit-driven corporation.
Summit Malibu is located on three acres of private land, one full mile inside a private gated community, surrounded on three sides by wild hills, and on the fourth side by a beautiful ocean view.
Many other residential treatment centers claim to offer privacy while they are actually located in typical houses on standard residential lots facing public streets.
If you are considering another treatment center, ask them how much private land surrounds their facility, and how much of their facility is within view of public streets.
Summit Malibu’s residential center is limited to seven clients, allowing us to provide individualized treatment to each and every client.
By maintaining one of the highest client-to-staff ratios in the industry we are able to customize treatment according to the specific needs of the individual, rather than having to impose a generalized treatment onto a large group.
If you are considering another treatment center, find out how many clients in total they can accommodate and what their client-to-staff ratio is when their facility is full.
Summit Malibu’s world class therapists have decades of experience treating the many dual diagnosis/co-occurring disorders that often accompany chemical dependency, such as depression, anxiety, and PTSD.
Other treatment centers accept dual diagnosis clients but may not have the long-term experience required to treat these complex and demanding issues.
If you are considering another treatment center, find out how much clinical experience therapists actually have treating dual diagnosis and co-occurring disorders.
Adderall is the brand name of a stimulant drug made up of a proprietary blend of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. It is believed to work by increasing the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
The effects felt when using the drug include loss of fatigue, increased alertness and concentration, better cognitive ability, and heightened libido. It is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and sometimes for depression.
Adderall is listed as a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act. This means that it has a high potential for prescription drug abuse and drug addiction.
Prolonged use can lead to increased tolerance (needing more of the drug to achieve the same effect) and withdrawal (an intense craving for the drug along with physical and psychological distress) when use is stopped. Continued use, especially over-use, can lead to the pathological conditions of drug abuse and drug dependence.
Extremely high doses, or high doses over a prolonged period of time, can result in a very serious condition known as amphetamine psychosis.
Adderral abuse and dependence often occurs when the drug is over-used for the treatment of commonly prescribed conditions such as fatigue, obesity, and depression. Adderall has also become a favorite “study drug” in colleges and universities because of its ability to help the user focus their concentration and study for very long periods of time.
Many abusers were originally prescribed the drug for childhood ADHD, and then continued to use the drug in later life for reasons other than those for which it was prescribed, such as concentration, weight loss, and performance enhancement.
One study estimates that as many as 14% of college students abuse some form of ADHD drug like Adderall.
Withdrawal from chronic abuse of Adderall can include anxiety, depression, fatigue, excessive sleeping, increased anger and rage, and even psychosis and suicidal thoughts. Physical effects can include heart palpitations, irregular heartbeat, uncontrollable tremors, sweating, and more serious cardiac symptoms.
As with most stimulants, users who take high doses of the drug over a prolonged period of time will eventually “crash.”
This occurs when their bodies and minds are simply too fatigued to continue, sometimes after days and even weeks of continuous use. Heavy users will often turn to other drugs such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and even illegal opiates such as heroin, to help soothe the effects of withdrawal.
Treatment for chronic Adderall abuse or dependence often requires medical detoxification, a period of rehabilitation from the physical effects, a period of psychotherapeutic counseling to deal with the mental and emotional effects, and possible psychopharmacological treatment to assist in re-regulating the effects of disrupted brain function.
Meprobamate (brand name Miltown, Equanil and Meprospan) is a an anti-anxiety drug that was once the best-selling minor tranquilizer in the United States. It has largely been replaced by benzodiazepines such as Valium, Librium, and Xanax.
Meprobamate is a Schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
Symptoms of Meprobamate overdose include drowsiness, unresponsiveness, loss of muscle control, severe impairment or cessation of breathing, coma, and shock.
Death has been reported with ingestion of as little as 12 grams of Meprobamate.
Prolonged use of Meprobamate can lead to physical dependence and has a life-threatening abstinence syndrome similar to alcohol and barbiturates. Sudden abstinence from Meprobamate can lead to severe reactions including insomnia, vomiting, tremor, muscle twitching and overt anxiety in the first 3 to 4 days.
Acute psychotic reactions and hallucinations resembling delirium tremens have been noticed in severe cases of Mebrobamate abuse.
Medically supervised detoxification (detox) followed by psychosocial treatment is highly recommended in cases of long-term Mebprobamate abuse and dependence.
Meperdine (Demerol, Pethedine, Lidol, Pethanol, Alodan and Dispadol) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. It is most commonly known by its brand name, Demerol. It is administered in tablets, syrup or by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Meperidine causes users to experience marked euphoria because it triggers the brain's pleasure centers while it blocks pain.
Meperidine's effects are felt a few minutes after ingestion and last from two to four hours. Meperidine’s effects are similar to morphine, but with sedation, respiratory depression, and euphoria less intense than morphine. Nausea and vomiting are common with oral use but less likely when administered by injection.
For much of the 20th century Meperidine was the opioid of choice for many physicians.
Meperidine was considered to be safer and to carry less risk of addictionthan Morphine. It was also thought to be superior in treating pain due to its antispasmodic effects. Physicians now consider Meperidine to be no more effective than Morphine in treating pain. In addition, its low potency, short duration, and toxicity has caused it to lose popularity in recent years.
Meperidine toxicity can result in seizures, delirium, and other serious neuropsychological effects.
The side effects of Meperidine are similar to those of other opiods: nausea, vomiting, sedation, dizziness, urinary retention and constipation. Meperidine overdose can cause muscle flaccidity, respiratory depression, cold and clammy skin, hypotension, and coma.
Fatalities have occurred with both oral and intravenous Meperidine overdose.
Serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening build up of excess serotonin in the brain, has occurred in patients taking Meperidine during antidepressant therapy or with selective serotonon reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOIs).
Despite being structurally distinct from Morphine and related opiates, Meperidine's effects on opiate receptors in the brain are similar to those of morphine.
The major hazard of Demerol is respiratory depression, but other risks include circulatory depression, respiratory arrest, shock, and cardiac arrest.
Physical tolerance and psychological dependence can develop, especially with excessive doses or long-term use. Stopping usage abruptly after prolonged or high dosage can result in extreme fatigue and mental depression.
Medially supervised detoxification is highly recommended when experiencing Meperidine withdrawal.
Severity of withdrawal symptoms is directly related to the amount of Meperidine taken and the length of time it has been taken. Dependence can develop after even a few weeks of regular use. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.
Librium (chlordiazepoxide) is a psychoactive benzodiazepine drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. Librium was the first benzodiazepine discovered. It was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963.
Librium is commonly misused and are often taken in combination with other drugs of abuse.
Librium enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which results in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic effect. These properties make Librium useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.
In general, Librium is safe for short term use, although cognitive impairments and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occasionally occur.
Long-term use has adverse psychological and physical effects, decreasing effectiveness, physical dependence, and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.
Librium overdoses can cause dangerous deep unconsciousness. However, they are much less toxic than barbiturates, and death rarely occurs when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken. When combined with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol and opiates, the potential for toxicity increases.
The long-term adverse effects of Librium include a general deterioration in physical and mental health and tend to increase with time.
Adverse effects can include cognitive impairment such as feelings of turmoil, difficulty in thinking constructively, increased anxiety, and depression. Behavioral problems also occur, such as loss of sex-drive, agoraphobia and social phobia, loss of interest in leisure pursuits and interests, and an inability to experience or express feelings. An altered perception of self, environment and relationships may also occur.
The most frequent symptoms of withdrawal from Librium is insomnia, gastric problems, tremors, agitation, fearfulness, and muscle spasms. Other effects include irritability, sweating, depersonalization, derealization, hypersensitivity to stimuli, depression, suicidal behavior, psychosis, seizures and delirium tremens.
Severe symptoms usually occur as a result of abrupt withdrawal, so medically supervised detoxification is recommended.
Approximately 10% of patients will experience a protracted withdrawal syndrome, which can last for many months or longer. This phenomenon is known as "benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome." Symptoms do gradually lessen over time, eventually disappearing altogether.
Librium is considered to be major drugs of abuse.
Librium is used recreationally and by drug abusers, with abuse mostly limited to individuals who abuse other drugs. Benzodiazepine abuse ranges from occasional binges on large doses, to chronic and compulsive drug abuse of high doses. Mortality rates are higher among drug abusers that use Librium, particularly among heavy alcohol users.
Both long-term and short-term use have the potential to cause physical and psychological dependence and severe withdrawal symptoms.
Dependence and tolerance can also develop rapidly, with benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome occurring after as little as three weeks of continuous use. Withdrawal symptoms include depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and agoraphobia, among others.